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Pesticides

Pesticides (lat. pestis — infection and lat. caedo — I kill) — chemicals used for pest control.

Pesticides include the following groups of agents: herbicides, destroying weeds; insecticides, destroying noxious insects; fungicides, destroying pathogenic fungi; zoocides, destroying harmful warm-blooded animals etc. Most of the pesticides are poisonous for the target organisms, but they also include sterilizers (agents causing sterility) and growth inhibitors.

Herbicides

Herbicides (from lat. herba — herb and caedo — I kill) — chemicals used to kill vegetation.

Depending on the nature of impact on the plants, herbicides can be divided into nonselective herbicides which kill all types of plants and selective herbicides which affect certain species of plants without causing damage to others.

Fungicides

Fungicides (from lat. fungus — fungus and lat. caedo — I kill) — chemicals used to control fungal plants diseases, as well as to treat seeds in order to free them from the spores of parasitic fungi.

Contact and combined fungicides are recommended to protect the vegetative plants of potato against late blight disease. Contact fungicides are efficient in the zones of direct contact with fungal spores, mostly on the leaves of upper and middle tier which get much of the fungicide residue.

 

Insecticides

Insecticides (from lat. insectum — insect and lat. caedo — I kill) — chemicals used to exterminate noxious insects.

Insecticides vary in chemical composition: organochlorines, organophosphates, carbamic acid derivatives, natural pyrethrins and synthetic pyrethroids, arsenic-containing agents, sulfur agents, mineral oils, poisons of plant origin containing alkaloids, chitin synthesis inhibitors and others.

Desiccants

Desiccants (from lat. desicco — I dry) — chemicals used to dry up plants cells.

Many contact herbicides are used as desiccants. Among the inorganic compounds, sulfur and arsenic acids, sodium, magnesium and calcium chlorates can be used. Due to its explosibility, sodium chlorate is usually applied in combination with sodium pentaborate, and magnesium chlorate – in combination with sodium chloride.